Two-tier morpho-chemical defence tactic in Aethionema via fruit morph plasticity and glucosinolates allocation in diaspores

Autor(en): Bhattacharya, Samik
Mayland-Quellhorst, Sara
Mueller, Caroline
Mummenhoff, Klaus 
Stichwörter: ARABIDOPSIS; BIOCHEMISTRY; BIOSYNTHESIS; BRASSICACEAE; CONSEQUENCES; dehiscent and indehiscent fruit morphs; DISPERSAL ABILITY; EVOLUTION; HERBIVORE; herbivory; multivariate PCA; OILSEED RAPE; PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY; plant defence compounds; Plant Sciences; Plutella xylostella
Erscheinungsdatum: 2019
Herausgeber: WILEY
Volumen: 42
Ausgabe: 4
Startseite: 1381
Seitenende: 1392
Fruit dimorphism and the production of glucosinolates (GSLs) are two specific life history traits found in the members of Brassicales, which aid to optimize seed dispersal and defence against antagonists, respectively. We hypothesized that the bipartite dispersal strategy demands a tight control over the production of fruit morphs with expectedly differential allocation of defensive anticipins (GSLs). In dimorphic Aethionema, herbivory by Plutella xylostella at a young stage triggered the production of more dehiscent (seeds released from fruit) than indehiscent fruit morphs (seeds enclosed within persistent pericarp) on the same plant upon maturity. Total GSL concentrations were highest in the mature seeds of dehiscent fruits from Aethionema arabicum and Aethionema saxatile among the different ontogenetic stages of the diaspores. Multivariate analyses of GSL profiles indicated significantly higher concentrations of specific indole GSLs in the diaspores, which require optimal defence after dispersal (i.e., seeds of dehiscent and fruit/pericarp of indehiscent fruit). Bioassays with a potentially coinhabitant fungus, Aspergillus quadrilineatus, support the distinct defensive potential of the diaspores corresponding to their GSL allocation. These findings indicate a two-tier morpho-chemical defence tactic of Aethionema via better protected fruit morphs and strategic provision of GSLs that optimize protection to the progeny for survival in nature.
ISSN: 01407791
DOI: 10.1111/pce.13462

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