Structure and bonding of the multifunctional amino acid L-DOPA on Au(110)

Autor(en): Weinhold, M.
Soubatch, S.
Temirov, R.
Rohlfing, M.
Jastorff, B.
Tautz, F. S.
Doose, C.
Stichwörter: ADHESIVE PROTEIN; ADSORPTION; Chemistry; Chemistry, Physical; CU(110); ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE; GLYCINE; LOCAL-STRUCTURE; MARINE MUSSEL; MYTILUS-EDULIS; R-ALANINE; S-ALANINE
Erscheinungsdatum: 2006
Herausgeber: AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Journal: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B
Volumen: 110
Ausgabe: 47
Startseite: 23756
Seitenende: 23769
Zusammenfassung: 
In investigations of the proteins which are responsible for the surface adhesion of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, an unusually frequent appearance of the otherwise rare amino acid 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine (L-DOPA) has been observed. This amino acid is thought to play a major role in the mechanism of mussel adhesion. Here we report a detailed structural and spectroscopic investigation of the interface between L-DOPA and a single-crystalline Au(110) model surface, with the aim of understanding fundamentals about the surface bonding of this amino acid and its role in mussel adhesion. Molecular layers are deposited by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD) in an ultrahigh-vacuum environment. The following experimental techniques have been applied: ex situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Vibrational spectra of isolated L-DOPA molecules and the zwitterionic bulk have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The predicted modes are assigned to observed spectra, allowing conclusions regarding the molecule-substrate and molecule-molecule interactions at the L-DOPA/Au(110) interface. We find that zwitterionic L-DOPA forms a monochiral, one-domain commensurate monolayer on Au(110), with the catechol rings on top of [1 $(1) over bar $0] gold rows, oriented parallel to the surface. The (2 x 1)-Au( 110) surface reconstruction is not lifted. The carboxylate group is found in a bidentate or bridging configuration, the amino group is tilted out of the surface plane, and the hydroxyl groups do not dehydrogenate on Au(110). Similar to the case for the bulk, molecules form dimers on Au(110). However, the number of hydrogen bridge bonds between L-DOPA molecules is reduced as compared to the bulk. Thicker layers which are deposited onto the commensurate interface do not order in the bulk structure. In conclusion, our study shows that the aromatic ring system of L-DOPA functions as a surface anchor. Since it is also known that the hydroxyl groups support cross-link reactions between L-DOPA residues in the mussel glue protein, we can conclude that the catechol ring supports surface adhesion of mussel proteins via two independent functions.
ISSN: 15206106
DOI: 10.1021/jp064956t

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