Natural disasters, aid distribution, and social conflict - Micro-level evidence from the 2015 earthquake in Nepal

Autor(en): De Juan, Alexander 
Pierskalla, Jan
Schwarz, Elisa
Stichwörter: Aid; Asia; BEHAVIOR; Business & Economics; CATASTROPHE; COHESION; Conflict; Development Studies; Disaster; Earthquake; ECONOMIC-GROWTH; Economics; FIELD EXPERIMENT; INEQUALITY; Nepal; POLITICS; RECOVERY; TSUNAMI; WAR
Erscheinungsdatum: 2020
Volumen: 126
How do natural disasters influence social conflict? We build on previous research by drawing more attention to conditional effects. We argue that damage and destruction tend to increase local-level cooperation and cohesion, as common threats and challenges supersede pre-existing communal cleavages. Irregular distribution of reconstruction aid, in the presence of pre-existing social inequalities, however, can dampen these effects and foster social conflict. We test this argument with a village-level analysis of the effects of the 2015 earthquake in Nepal: we rely on data on the exogenous spatial distribution of earthquake intensity, the number of violent events, and the patterns of post-disaster aid distribution. Our findings show that villages exposed to the earthquake experienced a reduction in the number of social conflict events. This pacifying effect is mediated by government aid distribution: as more aid is distributed, the conflict-mitigating effects of the earthquake are weakened. These results highlight the need for more conflict-sensitive reconstruction aid in the aftermath of natural disasters. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0305750X
DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104715

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