Fate of pendimethalin in soil and characterization of non-extractable residues (NER)

Autor(en): Luks, Ann-Katrin
Zegarski, Thordis
Nowak, Karolina M.
Miltner, Anja
Kaestner, Matthias
Matthies, Michael
Schmidt, Burkhard
Schaeffer, Andreas
Stichwörter: 14C-labelled; AMENDMENT; BEHAVIOR; COMPOST-AMENDED SOIL; Covalently bound residues; DEGRADATION; Entrapped residues; Environmental fate of pesticides; Environmental Sciences; Environmental Sciences & Ecology; HUMIC COMPOUNDS; METABOLITES; MINERALIZATION; Organic amendments; ORGANIC-MATTER; SILYLATION; STRAW
Erscheinungsdatum: 2021
Herausgeber: ELSEVIER
Journal: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
Volumen: 753
Zusammenfassung: 
One important route of degradation of herbicide pendimethalin in soil leads to formation of non-extractable residues (NER). To investigate NER nature (irreversibly, chemically bound, including possible biogenic NER, or strongly sorbed and entrapped) residues of C-14-labelled pendimethalin in soil were investigated after conventional extraction with organic solvents by silylation. After 400 days of incubation, 32.0% of applied radioactivity (AR) was transformed into NER, 39.9% AR remained extractable. Mineralization reached 26.2% AR. Additionally, C-14-pendimethalin was incubated in soil amended with compost for 217 days to investigate the influence of organic amendments on NER formation. NER amounted to 37.8% AR, with 57.9% AR remaining extractable. Mineralization was negligible (1.4% AR). For all sampling times only low amounts of radioactivity were entrapped (<5% AR) in soil without compost amendment. Pendimethalin was present only in trace amounts (ca. 0.4% AR), other released residues consisted of undefined fractions (sum approximate to 2% AR). In soil amended with compost, silylation overall resulted in release of higher amounts of radioactivity (19% AR). Addition of compost led to an increase in potential entrapment and sorption sites for pendimethalin, forming higher amounts of strongly sorbed, entrapped residues. Furthermore, potential release of non-extractable pendimethalin residues was investigated by incubation of solvent-extracted soil (without compost amendment) mixed with fresh soil for additional 3 months. NER were partly mineralized (7% AR) and 20% became extractable with organic solvents. However, no pendimethalin or any known metabolites were found. It can be concluded that no parent pendimethalin was found and NER of pendimethalin in soil are mainly formed by covalent binding to organic matrix with only low potential of remobilization under natural conditions. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 00489697
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141870

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