Evolution of cation binding in the active sites of P-loop nucleoside triphosphatases in relation to the basic catalytic mechanism
|Shalaeva, Daria N.
Cherepanov, Dmitry A.
Galperin, Michael Y.
Golovin, Andrey V.
Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.
|16S RIBOSOMAL-RNA; ATP HYDROLYSIS; Biology; ELONGATION-FACTOR TU; ESCHERICHIA-COLI; FORCE-FIELD; G DOMAIN; GTPASE ACTIVITY; Life Sciences & Biomedicine - Other Topics; MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATION; PHOSPHORYL TRANSFER; STRUCTURAL BASIS
|ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD
The ubiquitous P-loop fold nucleoside triphosphatases (NTPases) are typically activated by an arginine or lysine `finger'. Some of the apparently ancestral NTPases are, instead, activated by potassium ions. To clarify the activation mechanism, we combined comparative structure analysis with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Mg-ATP and Mg-GTP complexes in water and in the presence of potassium, sodium, or ammonium ions. In all analyzed structures of diverse P-loop NTPases, the conserved P-loop motif keeps the triphosphate chain of bound NTPs (or their analogs) in an extended, catalytically prone conformation, similar to that imposed on NTPs in water by potassium or ammonium ions. MD simulations of potassium-dependent GTPase MnmE showed that linking of alpha- and gamma phosphates by the activating potassium ion led to the rotation of the gamma-phosphate group yielding an almost eclipsed, catalytically productive conformation of the triphosphate chain, which could represent the basic mechanism of hydrolysis by P-loop NTPases.
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