Analysis of propylene glycol in airport surface runoff by solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)

Autor(en): Fries, E.
Ernesti, S.
Erscheinungsdatum: 2010
Herausgeber: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Journal: Chromatography: Types, Techniques and Methods
Startseite: 405
Seitenende: 416
Different mixtures of propylene glycol (PG) and water are widely used for aircraft de-icing and anti-icing operations in wintry weather conditions. Although waste water that is highly contaminated with aircraft de-icing and anti-icing fluids (ADAF) is collected after application and disposed adequately in waste water treatment plants, a diffuse input of PG into the environment must be regarded. Main input sources are wind drift during application, runoff from aircraft surfaces until it arrives at take-off position, and removal of ADAF from aircraft surfaces during takeoff.In this article, the analysis of PG in aqueous solutions by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is presented. PG is a very polar compound with a great affinity to water. Thus, an efficient extraction of PG from water is of high priority to reach a low limit of detection (LOD). PG was directly extracted by the SPME fiber from water samples of low sample volume (18 ml). Two SPME fibers, an 85-μm Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Carboxen fiber and an 85-μm Polyacrylate (PA) fiber were evaluated for extraction efficiency. Higher amounts of PG were extracted from the water using the 85μm-PDMS/Carboxen fiber. Optimum SPME conditions for this fiber were obtained using an extraction temperature of 60 °C, an extraction time of 30 minutes, a fiber desorption time of 13 minutes at 250 °C and a fiber bake-out time of 20 minutes at 310 °C. Based on these conditions the LOD was 0.115 mg L-1. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was set at three times the LOD and was 0.345 mg L-1. The LOD of the SPME/GC-MS method was at least one order of magnitude better than those of common analytical methods based on liquid-liquid extraction of PG from the water phase. Using [2H]4-ethylene glycol (ethylene glycol-d4) as an internal standard the relative standard deviation (RSD) at a PG concentration of 0.504 mg L-1 was 14.6 % demonstrating a good reproducibility of the method at a concentration nearby the LOQ. The SPME/GC-MS method was applied successfully to analyze PG in airport surface run-off with a mean concentration of 10.75 mg/l (n=3) demonstrating a diffuse input of PG from aircraft de-icing and anti-icing operations. © 2010 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
ISBN: 9781608763160
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