Visual hot spots: An eye tracking study of attention bias in body dysmorphic disorder

Autor(en): Greenberg, J.L.
Reuman, L.
Hartmann, A.S. 
Kasarskis, I.
Wilhelm, S.
Stichwörter: adolescent; Adult; alcohol abuse; anxiety disorder; Article; Attention; Attention bias; attention deficit disorder; attentional bias; avoidance behavior; BDD; Beck Depression Inventory; bipolar disorder; Body dysmorphic disorder; Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale; Body Dysmorphic Disorders; Body Image; brown assessment of beliefs scale; cannabis addiction; case control study; Case-Control Studies; cephalometry; cheek; clinical article; comorbidity; compulsive skin picking; controlled study; distress syndrome; dysthymia; eye; eye fixation; eye movement; Eye tracking; eyebrow; Face; Facial Attractiveness Scale; Female; Fixation, Ocular; hair; human; Humans; major depression; Male; neuropsychological test; Neuropsychological Tests; nose; obsessive compulsive disorder; Obsessive-compulsive spectrum; olfactory reference syndrome; phobia; physiology; posttraumatic stress disorder; priority journal; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; psychological rating scale; psychology; questionnaire; Questionnaires; selective attention; Self Concept; skin; social phobia; standards; statistics and numerical data; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders; Subjective Units of Distress Scale; task performance; tooth; vision, Adolescent; visual hot spot; Visual Perception; Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale; Young Adult
Erscheinungsdatum: 2014
Herausgeber: Elsevier Ltd
Journal: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Volumen: 57
Ausgabe: 1
Startseite: 125
Seitenende: 132
Attentional biases have been implicated in the development and maintenance of BDD. In particular, a visual attention bias toward one's unattractive features and others' attractive features (negative bias), might underlie BDD symptoms. Healthy individuals typically pay more attention to others' unattractive and their own attractive features (positive bias). This study used eye tracking to examine visual attention in individuals with BDD relative to healthy controls (HC). We also explored the role of avoidance in attention bias. Participants with BDD and primary face/head concerns ( n = 19) and HC ( n = 20) completed computerized tasks and questionnaires. Eye movement data (i.e., fixations, dwell time) were recorded while participants viewed images of their own and a control face (selected for average attractiveness and neutral expression). Participants rated distress and perceived most and least attractive features of their own and another face. BDD participants demonstrated a negative mean total bias score compared to HC (fixation: p = 0.24; dwell: p = 0.08). Age (fixation: p = 0.006; dwell: p = 0.03) and gender (fixation: p = 0.03; dwell: p = 0.03) moderated the relationship. Avoidance was associated with a positive bias in BDD. Results suggest individuals with BDD overfocus on negative attributes, a potential factor in the disorder's etiology and maintenance. Conversely, HC had a more balanced focus on their traits. Elucidating the role of attention bias could help to identify risk and maintenance factors in BDD. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
ISSN: 00223956
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.06.015
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