The holotypes of the upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823: Hyaenidae) and Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810: Felidae) of the Zoolithen Cave hyena den (South Germany) and their palaeo-ecological interpretation

Autor(en): Diedrich, Cajus G.
Stichwörter: carnivores; Europe; Late Pleistocene; skulls; Zoology
Erscheinungsdatum: 2008
Herausgeber: OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Journal: ZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY
Volumen: 154
Ausgabe: 4
Startseite: 822
Seitenende: 831
Zusammenfassung: 
The rediscovered holotype skulls of Late Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) (Felidae) and Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) (Hyaenidae) from the Zoolithen Cave at Burggeilenreuth, southern Germany, are discussed. The cave became famous mainly due to its rich cave bear bone remains from the late Saalian (OIS 6-8) to Eemian/Weichselian (OIS 3-6) including additionally a third holotype of Ursus spelaeus Rosenmuller, 1794 (Ursidae). The `Felis spelaea' holotype represents an adult male with a strong bite mark on the saggital crest, which was in an early stage of healing. Compared with other European Late Pleistocene lion skulls and skeletons, and with modern African lions, it provides evidence of intraspecific conflict between male Ice Age lions. The holotype of `Hyaena spelaea' is one of several hundred hyena remains from a well-frequented hyena den cave. The cave was used intensively by Late Pleistocene hyena clans, for collecting lion carcasses in addition to their accustomed prey, as happened in many caves throughout Europe. Ice Age spotted hyena clans might have killed Ice Age steppe lions for many reasons, such as fights over prey and territory, and the protection of cubs, but they did not always scavenge on their carcasses. (C) 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 154, 822-831.
ISSN: 00244082
DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00425.x

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