Vaccines against human diarrheal pathogens Current status and perspectives

Autor(en): Boehles, Nathalie
Busch, Kim
Hensel, Michael 
Stichwörter: ANTIGENIC VARIATION; Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology; Campylobacter spp.; diarrheal diseases; EFFICACY TRIAL; ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA-COLI; human pathogen; IMMUNE-RESPONSES; Immunology; MASS VACCINATION; O-SPECIFIC POLYSACCHARIDE; ORAL VACCINE; recombinant vaccine; rotavirus; ROTAVIRUS VACCINATION; Shigella spp.; SHIGELLA-FLEXNERI 2A; Vibrio cholerae; VIBRIO-CHOLERAE O139
Erscheinungsdatum: 2014
Volumen: 10
Ausgabe: 6
Startseite: 1522
Seitenende: 1535
Worldwide, nearly 1.7 billion people per year contract diarrheal infectious diseases (DID) and almost 760 000 of infections are fatal. DID are a major problem in developing countries where poor sanitation prevails and food and water may become contaminated by fecal shedding. Diarrhea is caused by pathogens such as bacteria, protozoans and viruses. Important diarrheal pathogens are Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp. and rotavirus, which can be prevented with vaccines for several years. The focus of this review is on currently available vaccines against these three pathogens, and on development of new vaccines. Currently, various types of vaccines based on traditional (killed, live attenuated, toxoid or conjugate vaccines) and reverse vaccinology (DNA/mRNA, vector, recombinant subunit, plant vaccines) are in development or already available. Development of new vaccines demands high levels of knowledge, experience, budget, and time, yet promising new vaccines often fail in preclinical and clinical studies. Efficacy of vaccination also depends on the route of delivery, and mucosal immunization in particular is of special interest for preventing DID. Furthermore, adjuvants, delivery systems and other vaccine components are essential for an adequate immune response. These aspects will be discussed in relation to the improvement of existing and development of new vaccines against DID.
ISSN: 21645515
DOI: 10.4161/hv.29241

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