The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding

Autor(en): Gutsche, Nora 
Zachgo, Sabine 
Stichwörter: DISEASE RESISTANCE; EXPRESSION; GENETIC INTERACTIONS; Multidisciplinary Sciences; NPR1; PROMOTER; PROTEIN; REGION; S-GLUTATHIONYLATION; Science & Technology - Other Topics; THALIANA; TRANSFER DISSOCIATION ETD
Erscheinungsdatum: 2016
Herausgeber: PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
Journal: PLOS ONE
Volumen: 11
Ausgabe: 4
Zusammenfassung: 
The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redoxconditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG), which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly conserved regulatory AG cis-element, emphasizing the importance of redox-modifications in the regulation of flower developmental processes.
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153810

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