O- bound small polarons in oxide materials
|Schirmer, O. F.
|ALKALINE-EARTH OXIDES; CRYSTALLINE QUARTZ; ELECTRON-SPIN-RESONANCE; IONIC-CRYSTALS; MAGNETIC CIRCULAR-DICHROISM; OPTICAL-ABSORPTION; Physics; Physics, Condensed Matter; SINGLE-CRYSTALS; SMOKY QUARTZ; ULTRASONIC-ATTENUATION; V-TYPE CENTERS
|IOP PUBLISHING LTD
|JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER
Holes bound to acceptor defects in oxide crystals are often localized by lattice distortion at just one of the equivalent oxygen ligands of the defect. Such holes thus form small polarons in symmetric clusters of a few oxygen ions. An overview on mainly the optical manifestations of those clusters is given. The article is essentially divided into two parts: the first one covers the basic features of the phenomena and their explanations, exemplified by several paradigmatic defects; in the second part numerous oxide materials are presented which exhibit bound small polaron optical properties. The first part starts with summaries on the production of bound hole polarons and the identification of their structure. It is demonstrated why they show strong, wide absorption bands, usually visible, based on polaron stabilization energies of typically 1 eV. The basic absorption process is detailed with a fictitious two-well system. Clusters with four, six and twelve equivalent ions are realized in various oxide compounds. In these cases several degenerate optically excited polaron states occur, leading to characteristic final state resonance splittings. The peak energies of the absorption bands as well as the sign of the transfer energy depend on the topology of the clusters. A special section is devoted to the distinction between interpolaron and intrapolaron optical transitions. The latter are usually comparatively weak. The oxide compounds exhibiting bound hole small polaron absorptions include the alkaline earth oxides ( e. g. MgO), BeO and ZnO, the perovskites BaTiO3 and KTaO3, quartz, the sillenites (e.g. Bi12TiO20), Al2O3, LiNbO3, topaz and various other materials. There are indications that the magnetic crystals NiO, doped with Li, and LaMnO3, doped with Sr, also show optical features caused by bound hole polarons. Beyond being elementary paradigms for the properties of small polarons in general, the defect species treated can be used to explain radiation and light induced absorption especially in laser and non-linear oxide materials, the role of some defects in photorefractive compounds, the coloration of various gemstones, the structure of certain catalytic surface centres, etc. The relation to further phenomena is discussed: free small polarons, similar distorted centres in the sulfides and selenides, acceptor defects trapping two holes.
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checked on Mar 4, 2024