Relation between far-from-equilibrium dynamics and equilibrium correlation functions for binary operators

Autor(en): Richter, Jonas
Steinigeweg, Robin 
Stichwörter: CHAIN; CHAOS; FOUNDATIONS; Physics; Physics, Fluids & Plasmas; Physics, Mathematical; QUANTUM; STATISTICAL-MECHANICS; SYSTEMS; THERMALIZATION; UNIVERSAL DYNAMICS
Erscheinungsdatum: 2019
Herausgeber: AMER PHYSICAL SOC
Journal: PHYSICAL REVIEW E
Volumen: 99
Ausgabe: 1
Zusammenfassung: 
Linear response theory (LRT) is one of the main approaches to the dynamics of quantum many-body systems. However, this approach has limitations and requires, e.g., that the initial state is (i) mixed and (ii) close to equilibrium. In this paper, we discuss these limitations and study the nonequilibrium dynamics for a certain class of properly prepared initial states. Specifically, we consider thermal states of the quantum system in the presence of an additional static force which, however, become nonequilibrium states when this static force is eventually removed. While for weak forces the relaxation dynamics is well captured by LRT, much less is known in the case of strong forces, i.e., initial states far away from equilibrium. Summarizing our main results, we unveil that, for high temperatures, the nonequilibrium dynamics of so-called binary operators is always generated by an equilibrium correlation function. In particular, this statement holds true for states in the far-from-equilibrium limit, i.e., outside the linear response regime. In addition, we confirm our analytical results by numerically studying the dynamics of local fermionic occupation numbers and local energy densities in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain. Remarkably, these simulations also provide evidence that our results qualitatively apply in a more general setting, e.g., in the anisotropic XXZ model where the local energy is a non-binary operator, as well as for a wider range of temperature. Furthermore, exploiting the concept of quantum typicality, all of our findings are not restricted to mixed states, but are valid for pure initial states as well.
ISSN: 24700045
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.99.012114

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