Musculature and nervous system of Gnathostomula peregrina (Gnathostomulida) shown by phalloidin labeling, immunohistochemistry, and cLSM, and their phylogenetic significance

Autor(en): Muller, MCM
Sterrer, W
Stichwörter: Anatomy & Morphology; ANNELIDA; CHARACTERS; cLSM; F-actin; FINE-STRUCTURE; FMRFamide; Gnathostomulida; nervous system; phalloidin; PLATHELMINTHES; PLATYHELMINTHES; ROTIFERA; Zoology
Erscheinungsdatum: 2004
Herausgeber: SPRINGER
Journal: ZOOMORPHOLOGY
Volumen: 123
Ausgabe: 3
Startseite: 169
Seitenende: 177
Zusammenfassung: 
Musculature and nervous system of Gnathostomula peregrina (Gnathostomulida, Scleroperalia) were reconstructed from whole animals by immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The F-actin muscular subset, stained with FITC-labeled phal-loidin, consists of: (1) eleven pairs (four ventral, one ventrolateral, one dorsolateral, five dorsal) of longitudinal muscles; (2) two types of diagonal muscles (thin fibers throughout the body, and slightly thicker fibers of which seven pairs occur ventrally and two pairs dorsally); (3) evenly spaced thin circular fibers that gird the posterior half of the body, continuing less prominently into the anterior half; and (4) a complex pharyngeal and genital musculature. Dorsoventral muscles are absent. The organization of the FMRFamidergic nervous system shows: (1) a central nervous system with a frontal ganglion and one pair of longitudinal nerves ending in a terminal commissure. and one median ventral nerve; (2) eight to ten unipolar perikarya above, and up to ten bipolar perikarya in front of the brain; (3) a total of five (one unpaired, two paired) longitudinal nerves of the peripheral nervous system with two to four accompanying perikarya; and (4) a buccal ganglion of the stomatogastric nervous system with six to eight perikarya above the pharyngeal bulbus. Our results reveal the musculature and nervous system of Gnathostomida to be more complex than hitherto reported.
ISSN: 0720213X
DOI: 10.1007/s00435-004-0099-2

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