Some new methodological aspects of the hen's egg test for micronucleus induction (HET-MN)

Autor(en): Wolf, T
Niehaus-Rolf, C
Luepke, NP
Stichwörter: alternatives to animal testing; Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology; chick embryo; EMBRYO; Genetics & Heredity; genotoxicity; hen's eggs; INOVO; micronucleus test; mutagenicity; Toxicology
Erscheinungsdatum: 2002
Volumen: 514
Ausgabe: 1-2
Startseite: 59
Seitenende: 76
In a previous publication we introduced the hen's egg test for micronucleus induction (HET-MN) as an extremely simple, inexpensive and rapid animal free genotoxicity assay which is positioned between pure in vitro and in vivo assays, strictly in line with animal protection regulations and ethical aspects. The HET-MN combines the use of the commonly accepted genetic endpoint ``formation of micronuclei'' with the well characterized and complex model of the chick embryo. The high metabolic competency provided by this model enables metabolic activation, elimination and excretion of xenobiotics including mutagens and promutagens. In this paper we present some new methodological aspects, which are important for improving the experimental protocol. We used cyclophosphamide (CP) and 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as model substances. Dose-response-relationship for both chemicals and cytotoxic effects for CP are described. In addition to the standard proliferation marker PCE/NCE-ratio we found an increased frequency of primitive erythrocytes (E I) and the appearance of proerythroblasts and erythroblasts as further alerting signals for cytotoxic or erythrosuppressive effects. From the total cell population we could further qualify the group of target cells. We found that all definite erythrocytes (E II), observed at day 11 (d11), are relevant target cells, independent from their stage of maturity (polychromatic as well as normochromatic definite erythrocytes). E I cells do not belong to the group of target cells, however. An additional important methodological aspect is the optimal time frame. We found the time period from d8 of incubation (administration of the test substance) up to d11 (time point of blood sampling) as most favorable. In this way an exposure period of up to 72 h is covered. Further results indicate that the air cell route provides a higher response to the test substances than the albumen route. The consideration of the described methodological aspects will contribute to the improvement of the experimental protocol of the HET-MN. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 13835718
DOI: 10.1016/S1383-5718(01)00317-5

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