Spatiotemporal Computations of an Excitable and Plastic Brain: Neuronal Plasticity Leads to Noise-Robust and Noise-Constructive Computations
|Biochemical Research Methods; Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; CIRCUITS; INFORMATION; Mathematical & Computational Biology; MOTOR CORTEX; NERVOUS-SYSTEM; ORGANIZATION; RECURRENT NEURAL-NETWORKS; REDUNDANCY; SPIKING NEURONS; SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY; VISUAL-CORTEX
|PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
|PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
It is a long-established fact that neuronal plasticity occupies the central role in generating neural function and computation. Nevertheless, no unifying account exists of how neurons in a recurrent cortical network learn to compute on temporally and spatially extended stimuli. However, these stimuli constitute the norm, rather than the exception, of the brain's input. Here, we introduce a geometric theory of learning spatiotemporal computations through neuronal plasticity. To that end, we rigorously formulate the problem of neural representations as a relation in space between stimulus-induced neural activity and the asymptotic dynamics of excitable cortical networks. Backed up by computer simulations and numerical analysis, we show that two canonical and widely spread forms of neuronal plasticity, that is, spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity and intrinsic plasticity, are both necessary for creating neural representations, such that these computations become realizable. Interestingly, the effects of these forms of plasticity on the emerging neural code relate to properties necessary for both combating and utilizing noise. The neural dynamics also exhibits features of the most likely stimulus in the network's spontaneous activity. These properties of the spatiotemporal neural code resulting from plasticity, having their grounding in nature, further consolidate the biological relevance of our findings.
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checked on Mar 3, 2024