Site-directed spin labeling EPR spectroscopy in protein research
|Klare, Johann P.
|ASPARTATE TRANSPORTER; Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; conformational dynamics; DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy; ELECTRON-PARAMAGNETIC-RESONANCE; HAMP DOMAIN; HIGH-FIELD EPR; LIGHT-DEPENDENT CHANGES; protein function; protein structure; protein-nucleic acid interaction; protein-protein interaction; REVEALS CONFORMATIONAL EQUILIBRIA; SIDE-CHAINS; site-directed spin labeling (SDSL); STRUCTURAL FEATURES; TIME-RESOLVED DETECTION
|WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH
Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has emerged as an efficient tool to elucidate the structure and the conformational dynamics of proteins under conditions close to the native state. This review article summarizes the basics as well as the recent progress in SDSL and EPR methods, especially for investigations on protein structure, protein function, and interaction of proteins with other proteins or nucleic acids. Labeling techniques as well as EPR methods are introduced and exemplified with applications to systems that have been studied in the author's laboratory in the past 15 years, headmost the sensory rhodopsin-transducer complex mediating the photophobic response of the halophilic archaeum Natronomonas pharaonis. Further examples underline the application of SDSL EPR spectroscopy to answer specific questions about the system under investigation, such as the nature and influence of interactions of proteins with other proteins or nucleic acids. Finally, it is discussed how SDSL EPR can be combined with other biophysical techniques to combine the strengths of the different methodologies.
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