Development of thermally fixed photorefractive holograms without light

Autor(en): Nee, I
Muller, M
Buse, K
Stichwörter: CHARGE-TRANSPORT PROCESSES; COMPACT; FILTER; GRATINGS; LINBO3 CRYSTALS; LITHIUM-NIOBATE CRYSTALS; Optics; Physics; Physics, Applied; STORAGE
Erscheinungsdatum: 2001
Herausgeber: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Journal: APPLIED PHYSICS B-LASERS AND OPTICS
Volumen: 72
Ausgabe: 2
Startseite: 195
Seitenende: 200
Zusammenfassung: 
Holographic gratings are recorded and thermally fixed in iron-doped photorefractive lithium-niobate crystals. A spatially modulated concentration of filled and empty electron traps (Fe2+ and Fe3+) yields a modulated dark conductivity. As a consequence, dark diffusion currents and dark drift currents arise. Space-charge fields and electro-optic refractive-index changes build up. An additional refractive-index grating, which may originate from a modulated proton concentration, as well as a pronounced absorption grating arising from the modulated Fe2+ concentration are also observed. The dark development has practical advantages: thermally fixed holograms can be used in devices without the need to develop them freshly from time to time by illumination. Although with dark development diffraction efficiencies up to 50%, are demonstrated, in general the efficiencies are smaller compared to those achieved by development with light.
ISSN: 09462171
DOI: 10.1007/s003400000444

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