Pattern of body-wall muscle differentiation during embryonic development of Enchytraeus coronatus (Annelida : Oligochaeta; Enchytraeidae)
|18S RDNA; Anatomy & Morphology; annelids; CELL LINEAGE; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM; development; EVOLUTION; EXPRESSION PATTERNS; IDENTIFIED CELL; muscles; MYOGENESIS; oligochaetes; phalloidin; POLYCHAETA; SEGMENTATION; TUBIFEX EMBRYO
|JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY
The plesiomorphic arrangement of bodywall musculature within the annelids is still under discussion. While polychaete groups show a great variety of patterns in their somatic muscles, the musculature of soil-living oligochaetes was thought to represent the characteristic pattern in annelids. Oligochaete body-wall muscles consist of an outer continuous layer of circular and an inner continuous layer of longitudinal muscles, forming a closed tube. Since designs of adult body musculature are influenced by evolutionary changes, additional patterns found during embryogenesis can give further information about possible plesiomorphic features. In oligochaetes, detailed cell-lineage analyses document the origin of the mesoderm and consequently the muscles, but later processes of muscle formation remain unclear. In the present work, body-wall muscle differentiation was monitored during embryogenesis of the soil-living oligochaete Enchytraeus coronatus (Annelida) by phalloidin staining. Primary circular muscles form in a discrete anterior-to-posterior segmental pattern, whereas emerging longitudinal muscles are restricted to one ventral and one dorsal pair of primary strands, which continuously elongate towards posterior. These primary muscles establish an initial muscle-template. Secondary circular and longitudinal muscles subsequently differentiate in the previous spaces later in development. The prominent ventral primary longitudinal muscle strands on both sides eventually meet at the ventral midline due to neurulation, which moves the ventral nerve cord into a coelomic position, closing the muscle layers into a complete tube. This early embryonic pattern in E. coronatus resembles the adult body-wall muscle arrangements in several polychaete groups as well as muscle differentiation during embryonic development of the polychaete Capitella sp.
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