Exploring protein import pores of cellular organelles at the single molecule level using the planar lipid bilayer technique
|BROWNIAN DYNAMICS; CALCIUM LEAK; Cell Biology; Channels; CONDUCTING CHANNEL; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM; ENVELOPE MEMBRANE; MITOCHONDRIAL INNER MEMBRANE; OUTER-MEMBRANE; Planar lipid bilayer technique; Pores; PREPROTEIN TRANSLOCASE; PRESEQUENCE TRANSLOCASE; Protein translocation; TOM40 FORMS
|EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY
Proteins of living cells carry out their specialized functions within various subcellular membranes or aqueous spaces. Approximately half of all the proteins of a typical cell are transported into or across membranes. Targeting and transport to their correct subcellular destinations are essential steps in protein biosynthesis. In eukaryotic cells secretory proteins are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum before they are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane. Virtually all proteins of the endosymbiotic organelles, chloroplasts and mitochondria, are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and posttranslationally imported. Genetic and biochemical techniques led to rather detailed knowledge on the subunit composition of the various protein transport complexes which carry out the membrane transport of the preproteins. Conclusive concepts on targeting and cytosolic transport of polypeptides emerged, while still few details on the molecular nature and mechanisms of the channel moieties of protein translocation complexes have been achieved. In this paper we will describe the history of how the individual subunits forming the channel pores of the chloroplast, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum protein import machineries were identified and characterized by single channel electrophysiological techniques in planar bilayers. We will also highlight recent developments in the exploration of the molecular properties of protein translocating channels and the regulation of the diverse protein translocation systems using the planar bilayer technique. (C) 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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checked on Feb 27, 2024