The vertebrates of the Anisian/Ladinian boundary (Middle Triassic) from Bissendorf (NW Germany) and their contribution to the anatomy, palaeoecology, and palaeobiogeography of the Germanic Basin reptiles

Autor(en): Diedrich, Cajus
Stichwörter: Anisian/Ladinian boundary (Middle Triassic); Bone bed; Central Europe; Geography, Physical; Geology; Geosciences, Multidisciplinary; Northern Germany; Palaeobiogeography; Palaeoecology; Palaeoenvironment; Paleontology; Physical Geography; Reptile skeleton reconstructions; Taphocoenosis; Vertebrates
Erscheinungsdatum: 2009
Herausgeber: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Journal: PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY
Volumen: 273
Ausgabe: 1-2
Startseite: 1
Seitenende: 16
Zusammenfassung: 
Systematically excavated bones are described from Bissendorf (Osnabrucker Bergland, north-western Germany). The bone bed in the compressus zone of the Ceratitenschichten (Meissner Fm, Upper Muschelkalk, Anisian/Ladinian boundary, Middle Triassic) was dated by ceratites. Sedimentologically, it is a bioclastic rudstone built mainly from Coenothyris vulgaris brachiopods, which were heavily compressed into a 3 mm thin layer. Parts of the bone bed and the following 15 cm of autochthonous mud were partially eroded synsedimentary by the compressus storm event. The material of the not-rich bone bed in the Germanic Upper Muschelkalk consists of isolated teeth or fin spines from five well-known shark species: Hybodus longiconus Agassiz, 1843, Acrodus lateralis Agassiz, 1837, Acrodus gaillardoti Agassiz, 1837, Palaeobates angustissimus Agassiz, 1838 and Polyacrodus polycyphus Agassiz, 1837. Teeth and scales from the teleosteans Gyrolepis sp, Dollopterus sp., Colobodus maximus, Quenstedt, 1835, C. frequens, Dames [Dames, W., 1888. Die Ganoiden des Deutschen Muschelkalkes. Palaeontologische Abhandlungen 4,133-180] and Saurichthys sp. have been proved. Found were mostly vertebra centra and ribs, but also teeth and some other postcranial bones from the small pachypleurosaurs Anarosaurus sp. as well as mostly Neusticosaurus sp. These originated from adult and juvenile animals which indicates the primary habitat and populations of this region. Large marine nothosaur reptiles found include Nothasaurus cf. mirabilis Munster, 1834, and N. giganteus Munster, 1834. Proof of two placodonts is given thanks to Placodus gigas Agassiz, 1833 and Cyamodus sp. Finally, a tooth from the terrestrial lepidosaur Tanystrophaeus longibardicus (Bassani, 1866) is the northerly most sample found. The recorded fauna is well-known with complete skeletons of the described species from the northern Tethys (Mte. San Giorgio, Switzerland). The reptile skeletons are presented here in reconstruction. The bone bed composition in Bissendorf shows differences in the younger and more terrestrial mixed as well as the age difference in bone beds of northern (enodis/posseckeri zone) and southern Germany (dorsoplanus zone). At Bissendorf, only nearly complete marine vertebrates occur within the maximum high stand. High marine ichthyosaurs seem to be absent, indicating a shallow marine position in the western Germanic Basin. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 00310182
DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.10.026

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