Genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation of a naturally occurring floral homeotic mutant within a wild-type population of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae)
|ADAPTATION; AFLP; ARABIDOPSIS; ATTRACTION; Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Cruciferae; DIVERSITY; Ecology; Environmental Sciences & Ecology; EVOLUTION; Evolutionary Biology; floral variants; FLOWERING TIME; INDIVIDUALS; MODEL SYSTEM; population structure; SEED BANK; SHEPHERDS PURSE; sympatric differentiation
Apart from the common floral architecture in Brassicaceae, variation in flower morphology occurs in several genera within the family and is considered to affect speciation processes. We analysed genetic differentiation and flowering time variation of two floral variants of Capsella bursa-pastoris, the Spe variant and the wild-type, which occur sympatrically in a vineyard in southwest Germany. The Spe variant is characterized by an additional whorl of stamens instead of petals and was formerly classified as an independent taxon `Capsella apetala' Opiz. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and allozyme analysis revealed a substantial genetic differentiation of the two floral variants and a higher genetic variation within the wild-type subpopulation compared with the Spe subpopulation. The low genetic variation in the mutant provided evidence of a recent local origin or recent introduction. Flowering time analysis indicated that, within the analysed population, the Spe variant flowers significantly later than the wild-type (P < 0.001). We conclude that the evolution and persistence of Spe within a wild-type population is facilitated by high selfing rates and been enhanced by a shift in flowering phenology. Hence, our data provide substantial evidence that the Spe phenotype has established itself as an isolated entity within a wild-type population and may thus serve as a model for the analysis of the evolutionary significance of homeotic mutants in wild populations.
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checked on Feb 22, 2024