Development and Embryonic Pattern of Body Wall Musculature in the Crassiclitellate Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Clitellata)

Autor(en): Hunnekuhl, Vera S.
Bergter, Annette
Purschke, Guenter 
Paululat, Achim 
Stichwörter: 18S RDNA; Anatomy & Morphology; Annelida; CELL LINEAGE; cLSM; development; EARTHWORM EMBRYO; ENCHYTRAEUS-CORONATUS; FOETIDA; MUSCLE; myogenesis; OLIGOCHAETA; oligochaetes; phalloidin; PHYLOGENY; POLYCHAETA; TUBIFEX EMBRYO
Erscheinungsdatum: 2009
Herausgeber: WILEY
Journal: JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY
Volumen: 270
Ausgabe: 9
Startseite: 1122
Seitenende: 1136
Zusammenfassung: 
During early development of Eisenia andrei (Crassiclitellata), a loose arrangement of primary circular and longitudinal muscles encloses the whole embryo. Circular muscles differentiate in an antenior-posterior progression creating a segmental pattern. Primary circular muscles emerge at the segmental borders while later in development the central part of each segment is filled with circular strands. Longitudinal muscles develop in an anterio-posterior manner as well, but by continuous lengthening. Muscle growth is not restricted by segmental boundaries. The development begins with one pair of prominent longitudinal muscles differentiating ventrally along the right and the left germ band. These first muscles provide a guiding structure for the parallel organization of the afterwards differentiating longitudinal musculature. Additional primary longitudinal muscles emerge and form, together with the initial circular muscles, the primary muscle grid of the embryo. During the following development, secondary longitudinal muscle strands develop and integrate themselves into the primary grid. Meanwhile the primary circular muscles split into thin strands in a ventral to dorsal progression. Thus, a fine structured mesh of circular and longitudinal muscles is generated. Compared to other ``Oligochaeta'', embryonic muscle patterns in E. andrei are adapted to the development of a lecitho-trophic embryo. Nevertheless, two general characteristics of annelid muscle development become evident. The first is the segmental development of the circular muscles from a set of initial muscles situated at the segment borders. Second, there is a continuous development of primary longitudinal muscles starting at the anterior pole. At least one pair of main primary longitudinal strands is characteristic in Annelida. The space between all primary strands is filled with secondary longitudinal strands during further development. J. Morphol. 270:1122-1136, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
ISSN: 03622525
DOI: 10.1002/jmor.10749

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