Take the tube: remodelling of the endosomal system by intracellular Salmonella enterica
|Cell Biology; CONTAINING VACUOLE; EFFECTOR PROTEINS; EPITHELIAL-CELLS; HOST-CELLS; III SECRETION SYSTEM; MACROPHAGES; Microbiology; NETWORK; PATHOGENICITY ISLAND 2; TRAFFICKING; VIRULENCE
Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen residing in a unique host cell-derived membrane compartment, termed Salmonella-containing vacuole or SCV. By the activity of effector proteins translocated by the SPI2-endoced type III secretion system (T3SS), the biogenesis of the SCV is manipulated to generate a habitat permissive for intracellular proliferation. By taking control of the host cell vesicle fusion machinery, intracellular Salmonella creates an extensive interconnected system of tubular membranes arising from vesicles of various origins, collectively termed Salmonella-induced tubules (SIT). Recent work investigated the dynamic properties of these manipulations. New host cell targets of SPI2-T3SS effector proteins were identified. By applying combinations of live cell imaging and ultrastructural analyses, the detailed organization of membrane compartments inhabited and modified by intracellular Salmonella is now available. These studies provided unexpected new details on the intracellular environments of Salmonella. For example, one kind of SIT, the LAMP1-positive Salmonella-induced filaments (SIF), are composed of double-membrane tubules, with an inner lumen containing host cell cytosol and cytoskeletal filaments, and an outer lumen containing endocytosed cargo. The novel findings call for new models for the biogenesis of SCV and SIT and give raise to many open questions we discuss in this review.
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