Molecular suppression of the pimerization of viologens (=4,4 `-bipyridinium derivatives) attached to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin-film electrodes

Autor(en): Felderhoff, M
Heinen, S
Molisho, N
Webersinn, S
Walder, L 
Stichwörter: CATION RADICALS; Chemistry; Chemistry, Multidisciplinary; ELECTROCHROMISM; TIO2 FILMS; WINDOWS
Erscheinungsdatum: 2000
Herausgeber: WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Journal: HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA
Volumen: 83
Ausgabe: 1
Startseite: 181
Seitenende: 192
Zusammenfassung: 
Twelve viologens. i.e., 4,4'-bipyridinium derivatives 1-12, were examined for their use as electrochromic material when attached to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin-film electrodes. Eight of these (1-4, 7-8, 10, and 12) are new, and their synthesis is included. The modifier compounds consist of one to four bipyridinium subunits with linear or dendritic architecture, equipped with one to three TiO2-anchoring phosphonate groups. They are tailored for high electrochromic dynamics (large absorbance change upon reduction) and low extent of pimerization (=charge-transfer (CT) complexation of viologen cation radicals). A new graphical method is presented for the discrimination of simple dilution phenomena and more complex structural effects on the extent of pimerization in the surface-attached viologen layer.
ISSN: 0018019X
DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2675(20000119)83:1<181::AID-HLCA181>3.0.CO;2-U

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