Pore-Forming Proteins: From Pore Assembly to Structure by Quantitative Single-Molecule Imaging

Autor(en): Margheritis, Eleonora
Kappelhoff, Shirin
Cosentino, Katia 
Stichwörter: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Chemistry; Chemistry, Multidisciplinary; COLICIN IA CHANNEL; CRYSTAL-STRUCTURES; EQUINATOXIN-II; GASDERMIN D; LIPID-BILAYERS; LISTERIA-MONOCYTOGENES; MASS PHOTOMETRY; POLYMER-SUPPORTED MEMBRANES; pore functionality; pore-forming proteins; protein complex stoichiometry; single-molecule fluorescence microscopy; super-resolution microscopy; SUPERRESOLUTION MICROSCOPY; TOXIN
Erscheinungsdatum: 2023
Herausgeber: MDPI
Band: 24
Ausgabe: 5
Pore-forming proteins (PFPs) play a central role in many biological processes related to infection, immunity, cancer, and neurodegeneration. A common feature of PFPs is their ability to form pores that disrupt the membrane permeability barrier and ion homeostasis and generally induce cell death. Some PFPs are part of the genetically encoded machinery of eukaryotic cells that are activated against infection by pathogens or in physiological programs to carry out regulated cell death. PFPs organize into supramolecular transmembrane complexes that perforate membranes through a multistep process involving membrane insertion, protein oligomerization, and finally pore formation. However, the exact mechanism of pore formation varies from PFP to PFP, resulting in different pore structures with different functionalities. Here, we review recent insights into the molecular mechanisms by which PFPs permeabilize membranes and recent methodological advances in their characterization in artificial and cellular membranes. In particular, we focus on single-molecule imaging techniques as powerful tools to unravel the molecular mechanistic details of pore assembly that are often obscured by ensemble measurements, and to determine pore structure and functionality. Uncovering the mechanistic elements of pore formation is critical for understanding the physiological role of PFPs and developing therapeutic approaches.
DOI: 10.3390/ijms24054528

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