NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes play an important role in dark metabolism of various plastid types

Autor(en): Backhausen, JE
Vetter, S
Baalmann, E
Kitzmann, C
Scheibe, R 
Stichwörter: ACTIVATION; BIOSYNTHESIS; Capsicum (fruit plastids); COMPLEX; dark metabolism; ENZYMES; glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; LEAF PEROXISOMES; LEAVES; malate dehydrogenase; malate valve; OXIDOREDUCTASE; PEA ROOT PLASTIDS; Plant Sciences; REDUCTION; SPINACH-CHLOROPLASTS; Spinacia (chloroplasts)
Erscheinungsdatum: 1998
Herausgeber: SPRINGER
Journal: PLANTA
Volumen: 205
Ausgabe: 3
Startseite: 359
Seitenende: 366
Zusammenfassung: 
Chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves and green sweet-pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var, grossum (L.) SENDT.) fruits contain NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.82) and the bispecific NAD(P)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; EC 1.2.1.13). The NADP-dependent MDH and GAPDH are activated in the light, and inactive in the dark. We found that chloroplasts possess additional NAD-dependent MDH activity which is, like the NAD-dependent GAPDH activity, not influenced by light. In heterotrophic chromoplasts from red sweet-pepper fruits, the NADP-dependent MDH and the NAD(P)-GAPDH isoenzymes disappear during the developmental transition and only NAD-specific isoforms are found. Spinach chloroplasts contain both NAD/H and NADP/H at significant concentrations. Measurements of the pyridine dinucleotide redox states, performed under dark and various light conditions, indicate that NAD(H) is not involved in electron flow in the light. To analyze the contribution of NAD(H)-dependent reactions during dark metabolism, plastids from spinach leaves or green and red sweet-pepper fruits were incubated with dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). Exogenously added DHAP was oxidized into 3-phosphoglycerate by all types of plastids only in the presence of oxaloacetate, but not with nitrite or in the absence of added electron accepters. We conclude that the NAD-dependent activity of GAPDH is essential in the dark to produce the ATP required for starch metabolism; excess electrons produced during triose-phosphate oxidation can selectively be used by NAD-MDH to form malate. Thus NADPH produced independently in the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway will remain available for reductive processes inside the plastids.
ISSN: 00320935
DOI: 10.1007/s004250050331

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