Ethyl-iophenoxic acid as a quantitative bait marker for small mammals

Autor(en): Jacoblinnert, Kyra
Imholt, Christian
Schenke, Detlef
Jacob, Jens
Stichwörter: ACCEPTANCE; baiting; BIOMARKER; COMMON VOLES; EFFICACY; Microtus arvalis; OUTBREAKS; PALATABILITY; quantitative bait marker; RHODAMINE-B; SERUM MARKER; small mammals; VACCINE; WILD; Zoology
Herausgeber: WILEY
Journal: INTEGRATIVE ZOOLOGY
Zusammenfassung: 
Bait markers are indispensable for ecological research but in small mammals, most markers are invasive, expensive and do not enable quantitative analyses of consumption. Ethyl-iophenoxic acid (Et-IPA) is a non-toxic, quantitative bait marker, which has been used for studying bait uptake in several carnivores and ungulates. We developed a bait with Et-IPA, assessed its palatability to common voles (Microtus arvalis), and determined the dose-residue-relation for this important agricultural pest rodent species. Et-IPA concentrations of 40 to 1280 mu g Et-IPA per g bait were applied to wheat using sunflower oil or polyethylene glycol 300 as potential carriers. In a laboratory study, common voles were offered the bait and blood samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after consumption. The samples were analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS for blood residues of Et-IPA. Sunflower-oil was the most suitable bait carrier. Et-IPA seemed to be palatable to common voles at all test concentrations. Dose-dependent residues could be detected in blood samples in a dose-dependent manner and up to 14 days after uptake enabling generation of a calibration curve of the dose-residue relationship. Et-IPA was present in common vole blood for at least 14 days, but there was dissipation by 33-37% depending on dose. Et-IPA meets many criteria for an ``ideal'' quantitative bait marker for use in future field studies on common voles and possibly other small mammal species.
ISSN: 17494877
DOI: 10.1111/1749-4877.12547

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