Ethyl-iophenoxic acid as a quantitative bait marker for small mammals

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dc.contributor.authorJacoblinnert, Kyra
dc.contributor.authorImholt, Christian
dc.contributor.authorSchenke, Detlef
dc.contributor.authorJacob, Jens
dc.date.accessioned2021-12-23T16:07:35Z-
dc.date.available2021-12-23T16:07:35Z-
dc.identifier.issn17494877
dc.identifier.urihttps://osnascholar.ub.uni-osnabrueck.de/handle/unios/7954-
dc.description.abstractBait markers are indispensable for ecological research but in small mammals, most markers are invasive, expensive and do not enable quantitative analyses of consumption. Ethyl-iophenoxic acid (Et-IPA) is a non-toxic, quantitative bait marker, which has been used for studying bait uptake in several carnivores and ungulates. We developed a bait with Et-IPA, assessed its palatability to common voles (Microtus arvalis), and determined the dose-residue-relation for this important agricultural pest rodent species. Et-IPA concentrations of 40 to 1280 mu g Et-IPA per g bait were applied to wheat using sunflower oil or polyethylene glycol 300 as potential carriers. In a laboratory study, common voles were offered the bait and blood samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after consumption. The samples were analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS for blood residues of Et-IPA. Sunflower-oil was the most suitable bait carrier. Et-IPA seemed to be palatable to common voles at all test concentrations. Dose-dependent residues could be detected in blood samples in a dose-dependent manner and up to 14 days after uptake enabling generation of a calibration curve of the dose-residue relationship. Et-IPA was present in common vole blood for at least 14 days, but there was dissipation by 33-37% depending on dose. Et-IPA meets many criteria for an ``ideal'' quantitative bait marker for use in future field studies on common voles and possibly other small mammal species.
dc.description.sponsorshipGerman Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture [2815NA113]; Projekt DEAL; We thank M. Reilly for assistance in laboratory work and R. Koc and I. Stachewicz for residue analysis. IPA bait was produced and provided by A. Maier (Bayer AG R&D FT Environmental Science). The study was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture due to a parliamentary resolution within the federal program ``Organic farming and other forms of sustainable agriculture'' (file # 2815NA113). All animal experimentation was conducted in accordance with EU and federal legislation (file # No. 81-02.04.2019.A246). Open access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherWILEY
dc.relation.ispartofINTEGRATIVE ZOOLOGY
dc.subjectACCEPTANCE
dc.subjectbaiting
dc.subjectBIOMARKER
dc.subjectCOMMON VOLES
dc.subjectEFFICACY
dc.subjectMicrotus arvalis
dc.subjectOUTBREAKS
dc.subjectPALATABILITY
dc.subjectquantitative bait marker
dc.subjectRHODAMINE-B
dc.subjectSERUM MARKER
dc.subjectsmall mammals
dc.subjectVACCINE
dc.subjectWILD
dc.subjectZoology
dc.titleEthyl-iophenoxic acid as a quantitative bait marker for small mammals
dc.typejournal article
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/1749-4877.12547
dc.identifier.isiISI:000656252300001
dc.identifier.eissn17494869
dc.publisher.place111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA
dcterms.isPartOf.abbreviationIntegr. Zool.
dcterms.oaStatushybrid
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