Pasteurized non-fermented cow?s milk but not fermented milk is a promoter of mTORC1-driven aging and increased mortality

Autor(en): Melnik, Bodo C.
Schmitz, Gerd
Stichwörter: Cell Biology; Fermented milk; Geriatrics & Gerontology; Lifespan; Mortality; mTORC1; Non-fermented milk; Western diseases
Erscheinungsdatum: 2021
Herausgeber: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Journal: AGEING RESEARCH REVIEWS
Volumen: 67
Zusammenfassung: 
Recent epidemiological studies in Sweden, a country with traditionally high milk consumption, revealed that the intake of non-fermented pasteurized milk increased all-cause mortality in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the majority of epidemiological and clinical studies report beneficial health effects of fermented milk products, especially of yogurt. It is the intention of this review to delineate potential molecular aging mechanisms related to the intake of non-fermented milk versus yogurt on the basis of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Non-fermented pasteurized milk via its high bioavailability of insulinotropic branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), abundance of lactose (glucosyl-galactose) and bioactive exosomal microRNAs (miRs) enhances mTORC1 signaling, which shortens lifespan and increases all-cause mortality. In contrast, fermentation-associated lactic acid bacteria metabolize BCAAs and degrade galactose and milk exosomes including their mTORC1-activating microRNAs. The Industrial Revolution, with the introduction of pasteurization and refrigeration of milk, restricted the action of beneficial milk-fermenting bacteria, which degrade milk?s BCAAs, galactose and bioactive miRs that synergistically activate mTORC1. This unrecognized behavior change in humans after the Neolithic revolution increased aging-related over-activation of mTORC1 signaling in humans, who persistently consume large quantities of non-fermented pasteurized cow?s milk, a potential risk factor for aging and all-cause mortality.
ISSN: 15681637
DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101270

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