Addressing the problem of ADHD medication as neuroenhancements

Autor(en): Graf, William D.
Miller, Geoffrey
Nagel, Saskia K.
Stichwörter: ADOLESCENTS; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER; autonomy; CHILDREN; Clinical Neurology; DIAGNOSIS; DRUGS; DSM-5; ethics; ICD-10; medicalization; mental health; METHYLPHENIDATE; neuroenhancement; Neurosciences & Neurology; Pharmacology & Pharmacy; PRESCRIPTION; PREVALENCE; professional conduct; SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS; stimulant medication; STIMULANT USE
Erscheinungsdatum: 2014
Herausgeber: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Journal: EXPERT REVIEW OF NEUROTHERAPEUTICS
Volumen: 14
Ausgabe: 5
Startseite: 569
Seitenende: 581
Zusammenfassung: 
The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses is rising. ADHD is closely linked to its treatment with medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, which have popular appeal as neuroenhancement drugs by persons without a neurological disorder. The three main reasons for the increase in ADHD medication demand, production, and consumption are a) the inclusion of milder ADHD diagnoses; b) the vast marketing of ADHD medications by the pharmaceutical industry; and c) the illegal diversion of controlled ADHD medication to consumers seeking stimulants as neuroenhancements. Rapidly rising rates of any neurological disorder - especially a behaviorly-defined disorder closely linked to potent medications currently prescribed to more than 5% of the population - deserves ongoing scrutiny. Major social and ethical problems arise from vague-symptom medicalization, neurological disorder trivialization, medication overuse, and controlled substances diversion to healthy persons for nonmedical purposes. We argue against the `spectrumization' of ADHD in an effort to curtail further diagnosis creep.
ISSN: 14737175
DOI: 10.1586/14737175.2014.908707

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