New Insights on Cyclization Specificity of Fungal Type III Polyketide Synthase, PKSIIINc in Neurospora crassa
|Acyl-phloroglucinol; Alkyl-resorcinol; BIOSYNTHESIS; Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology; CHALCONE SYNTHASE; EXPRESSION; FAMILY; LIPIDS; Microbiology; Neurospora crassa; PKSIIINc; PRODUCT; REVEALS; STRUCTURAL BASIS; Type III polyketide synthase
|INDIAN JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY
Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) biosynthesize varied classes of metabolites with diverse bio-functionalities. Inherent promiscuous substrate specificity, multiple elongations of reaction intermediates and several modes of ring-closure, confer the proteins with the ability to generate unique scaffolds from limited substrate pools. Structural studies have identified crucial amino acid residues that dictate type III PKS functioning, though cyclization specific residues need further investigation. PKSIIINc, a functionally and structurally characterized type III PKS from the fungus, Neurospora crassa, is known to biosynthesize alkyl-resorcinol, alkyl-triketide- and alkyl-tetraketide-alpha-pyrone products. In this study, we attempted to identify residue positions governing cyclization specificity in PKSIIINc through comparative structural analysis. Structural comparisons with other type III PKSs revealed a motif with conserved hydroxyl/thiol groups that could dictate PKSIIINc catalysis. Site-directed mutagenesis of Cys120 and Ser186 to Ser and Cys, respectively, altered product profiles of mutant proteins. While both C120S and S186C proteins retained wild-type PKSIIINc product activity, S186C favoured lactonization and yielded higher amounts of the alpha-pyrone products. Notably, C120S gained new cyclization capability and biosynthesized acyl-phloroglucinol in addition to wild-type PKSIIINc products. Generation of alkyl-resorcinol and acyl-phloroglucinol by a single protein is a unique observation in fungal type III PKS family. Mutation of Cys120 to bulky Phe side-chain abrogated formation of tetraketide products and adversely affected overall protein stability as revealed by molecular dynamics simulation studies. Our investigations identify residue positions governing cyclization programming in PKSIIINc protein and provide insights on how subtle variations in protein cores dictate product profiles in type III PKS family.
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