Ion channels in the chloroplast envelope membrane

Autor(en): Heiber, T
Steinkamp, T
Hinnah, S
Schwarz, M
Flugge, UI
Weber, A
Wagner, R 
Stichwörter: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; FUNCTIONAL RECONSTITUTION; INNER-ENVELOPE; INTACT CHLOROPLASTS; LIGHT-DEPENDENT CHANGES; MG2+ CONCENTRATION; MITOCHONDRIAL-MEMBRANES; OUTER-MEMBRANE; POTASSIUM-PROTON EXCHANGE; SPINACH-CHLOROPLASTS; STROMAL PH
Erscheinungsdatum: 1995
Herausgeber: AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Journal: BIOCHEMISTRY
Volumen: 34
Ausgabe: 49
Startseite: 15906
Seitenende: 15917
Zusammenfassung: 
Isolated chloroplast envelope membranes were fused with azolectin liposomes. Ion transport across the membrane of these liposomes was investigated by the patch-clamp technique and in planar bilayers. Our results show that the chloroplast envelope contains voltage-dependent anion- and cation-selective channels as well as anion- and cation-selective pores with high conductances. At least one of the high-conductance pores could be located in the chloroplast outer envelope membrane. The low-conductance chloride channel and the potassium channel showed complex gating behavior with subconductant states. Potassium channel gating was affected by monovalent and divalent cations as well as by millimolar concentrations of ATP. Low concentrations of Cs+ induced a flickering block. Voltage dependence of the open probability reveals that macroscopic currents of potassium channels are rectified with preferential potassium uptake into the chloroplast. Flux measurements and determinations of the stroma pH of intact chloroplasts confirm the presence of a potassium channel that is regulated by divalent cations (Mg2+) and by ATP. The fully open potassium channel revealed a conductance of Lambda congruent to 100 pS in asymmetric KCl (250/20 mM KCl), and the fully open chloride channel revealed a conductance of Lambda congruent to 60 ps in 100 mM Tris/HCl. One high-conductance channel, mainly active at holding potentials >60 mV, was slightly selective for glutamate anions (P-K+/P-Glu- 2) and revealed fast voltage-dependent gating. This high-conductance channel had a conductance of Lambda congruent to 540 pS (in 250/20 mM potassium glutamate) and was closed most of the time. A second type of high-conductance channel, mainly open and active at holding potentials below 30 mV, was slightly selective for cations (P-Glu-/P-K+ congruent to 2) With a conductance of Lambda congruent to 1.14 nS (in 250/20 mM potassium glutamate).
ISSN: 00062960
DOI: 10.1021/bi00049a005

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