Diversity, origin, and distribution of retrotransposons (gypsy and copia) in conifers

Autor(en): Friesen, N 
Brandes, A
Heslop-Harrison, JS
Stichwörter: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; biodiversity; ELLIOTTII VAR ELLIOTTII; EVOLUTION; Evolutionary Biology; Genetics & Heredity; GENOME; genome organization; gymnosperms; IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION; ORGANIZATION; phylogenetics; Picea abies; pine; Pinus; RETROELEMENTS; RIBOSOMAL-RNA GENES; SEQUENCES; spruce; TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT; TY1-COPIA GROUP RETROTRANSPOSONS
Erscheinungsdatum: 2001
Herausgeber: OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Journal: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION
Volumen: 18
Ausgabe: 7
Startseite: 1176
Seitenende: 1188
Zusammenfassung: 
We examined the diversity, evolution, and genomic organization of retroelements in a wide range of gymnosperms. In fetal, 165 fragments of the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene domain were sequenced from PCR products using newly designed primers for gypsy-like retrotransposons and well-known primers for copia-like retrotransposons; representatives of long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) retroposons were also found. Gypsy and copia-like retroelements are a major component of the gymnosperm genome, and in situ hybridization showed that individual element families were widespread across the chromosomes, consistent with dispersion and amplification via an RNA intermediate. Most of the retroelement families were widely distributed among the gymnosperms, including species with wide taxonomic separation from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. When the,gymnosperm sequences were analyzed together with retroelements from other species, the monophyletic origin of plant copia, gypsy, and LINE groups was well supported, with an additional clade including badnaviral and other, probably virus-related, plant sequences: as well as animal and fungal gypsy elements. Plant retroelements showed high diversity within the phylogenetic trees of both copia and gypsy RT domains, with, for example, retroelement sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana being present in many supported groupings. No primary branches divided major taxonomic clades such as angiosperms, monocotyledons, gymnosperms, or conifers or (based on smaller samples) ferns, Gnetales, or Sphenopsida (Equisetum), suggesting that much of the existing diversity was present early in plant evolution, or perhaps that horizontal transfer of sequences has occurred. Within the phylogenetic trees for both gypsy and copia, two clearly monophyletic gymnosperm/conifer clades were revealed, providing evidence against recent horizontal transfer. The, results put the evolution of the large and relatively conserved genome structure of gymnosperms into the context of the diversity of other groups of plants.
ISSN: 07374038
DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003905

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