Defining Division of Labor in Microbial Communities

Autor(en): Giri, Samir
Waschina, Silvio
Kaleta, Christoph
Kost, Christian 
Stichwörter: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; CONFLICT; cooperation; cross-feeding; CROSS-FEEDING INTERACTIONS; ESCHERICHIA-COLI; EVOLUTION; EXPERIMENTAL POPULATIONS; EXPRESSION; FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT SELECTION; functional specialization; GROWTH; public good; STABILIZES COOPERATION; trade-off; TRADE-OFFS
Erscheinungsdatum: 2019
Herausgeber: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Journal: JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Volumen: 431
Ausgabe: 23, SI
Startseite: 4712
Seitenende: 4731
Zusammenfassung: 
In order to survive and reproduce, organisms must perform a multitude of tasks. However, trade-offs limit their ability to allocate energy and resources to all of these different processes. One strategy to solve this problem is to specialize in some traits and team up with other organisms that can help by providing additional, complementary functions. By reciprocally exchanging metabolites and/or services in this way, both parties benefit from the interaction. This phenomenon, which has been termed functional specialization or division of labor, is very common in nature and exists on all levels of biological organization. Also, microorganisms have evolved different types of synergistic interactions. However, very often, it remains unclear whether or not a given example represents a true case of division of labor. Here we aim at filling this gap by providing a list of criteria that clearly define division of labor in microbial communities. Furthermore, we propose a set of diagnostic experiments to verify whether a given interaction fulfills these conditions. In contrast to the common use of the term, our analysis reveals that both intraspecific and interspecific interactions meet the criteria defining division of labor. Moreover, our analysis identified non-cooperators of intraspecific public goods interactions as growth specialists that divide labor with conspecific producers, rather than being social parasites. By providing a conceptual toolkit, our work will help to unambiguously identify cases of division of labor and stimulate more detailed investigations of this important and widespread type of inter-microbial interaction. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 00222836
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2019.06.023

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