Experimental Studies on State Self-Objectification: A Review and an Integrative Process Model

Autor(en): Kahalon, Rotem
Shnabel, Nurit
Becker, Julia C.
Stichwörter: an integrative process model; appearance monitoring; appearance standards; BODY-IMAGE; COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE; COLLEGE-WOMEN; DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION; experimental research; GENDER-DIFFERENCES; MATH PERFORMANCE; Objectification theory; Psychology; Psychology, Multidisciplinary; schema activation; self-objectification; SEXUAL OBJECTIFICATION; SOCIAL-BEHAVIOR; STEREOTYPE THREAT; SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE
Erscheinungsdatum: 2018
Herausgeber: FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
Journal: FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
Volumen: 9
Zusammenfassung: 
This paper provides an organizing framework for the experimental research on the effects of state self-objectification on women. We explain why this body of work, which had grown rapidly in the last 20 years, departs from the original formulation of objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts, 1997). We compare the different operationalizations of state self-objectification and examine how they map onto its theoretical definition, concluding that the operationalizations have focused mostly on one component of this construct (concerns about one's physical appearance) while neglecting others (adopting a third-person perspective and treating oneself as a dehumanized object). We review the main findings of studies that experimentally induced state self-objectification and examined its affective, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physiological outcomes. We note that three core outcomes of this state as specified by objectification theory (safety anxiety, reduced flow experiences, and awareness of internal body states) have hardly been examined so far. Most importantly, we introduce an integrative process model, suggesting that the reported effects are triggered by four different mechanisms: appearance monitoring, experience of discrepancy from appearance standards, stereotype threat, and activation of the ``sex object'' schema. We propose strategies for distinguishing between these mechanisms and explain the theoretical and practical importance of doing so.
ISSN: 16641078
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01268

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