Bad Roots to Grow: Deficient Implicit Self-Evaluations in Chronic Depression With an Early Onset

Autor(en): van Randenborgh, Annette
Pawelzik, Markus
Quirin, Markus
Kuhl, Julius 
Stichwörter: CHILD MALTREATMENT; chronic depression; depression; DYSTHYMIC DISORDER; early onset; ESTEEM; EXPLICIT; FIELD TRIAL; implicit self-esteem; MAJOR DEPRESSION; MOOD DISORDERS; NAME; Psychology; Psychology, Clinical; SCALE; SUICIDAL IDEATION
Erscheinungsdatum: 2016
Herausgeber: WILEY
Journal: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Volumen: 72
Ausgabe: 6
Startseite: 580
Seitenende: 590
Zusammenfassung: 
ObjectiveImplicit self-esteem, which is based on associative learning processes, is considered to be constituted earlier in life than explicit, verbalized self-esteem. While depressed individuals report negative explicit self-esteem, research has predominantly demonstrated equivalent levels of implicit self-esteem of depressed and healthy individuals. We further illuminate this finding by theorizing and empirically demonstrating that chronically depressed individuals show particularly low levels of implicit self-esteem when depression had an early onset. MethodWe applied measures of implicit (name-letter test) and explicit (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) self-esteem in chronically depressed patients with an early onset (N = 17), a late onset (N = 13), and an episodic depression (N = 29). ResultsAs expected, patients with an early onset showed lower implicit self-esteem than the 2 other groups. ConclusionImplicit self-esteem may function as a marker of how deeply negative self-views are internalized. Furthermore, the distinction between early and late onset of chronic depression seems to be valuable for classification and potentially treatment of unipolar depression.
ISSN: 00219762
DOI: 10.1002/jclp.22275

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