Fungal homologues of human Rac1 as emerging players in signal transduction and morphogenesis

Autor(en): Huehn, Julia
Musielak, Marius
Schmitz, Hans-Peter 
Heinisch, Juergen J.
Stichwörter: Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology; CDC42; Filamentous fungi; G-PROTEINS; GTPase; HYPHAE; Microbiology; PATHOGENICITY; PATHWAY; RAS; REGULATE POLARIZED GROWTH; RHO GTPASES; Rho5; SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE; Signaling; SMALL GTPASES; Yeast
Erscheinungsdatum: 2020
Herausgeber: SPRINGER
Volumen: 23
Ausgabe: 1, SI
Startseite: 43
Seitenende: 53
A wealth of data is accumulating on the physiological functions of human Rac1, a member of the Rho GTPase family of molecular switches and substrate of botulinum toxin, which was first identified as a regulator of cell motility through its effect on the actin cytoskeleton. Later on, it was found to be involved in different diseases like cancers, cardiac function, neuronal disorders, and apoptotic cell death. Despite the presence of Rac1 homologues in most fungi investigated so far, including Rho5 in the genetically tractable model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, knowledge on their physiological functions is still scarce, let alone the details of the molecular mechanisms of their actions and interactions. Nevertheless, all functions proposed for human Rac1 seem to be conserved in one or the other fungus. This includes the regulation of MAPK cascades, polarized growth, and actin dynamics. Moreover, both the production and response to reactive oxygen species, as well as the reaction to nutrient availability, can be affected. We here summarize the studies performed on fungal Rac1 homologues, with a special focus on S. cerevisiae Rho5, which may be of use in drug development in medicine and agriculture.
ISSN: 11396709
DOI: 10.1007/s10123-019-00077-1

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